The Pre-History (until the 1880s)
c. 2000 B 1750 B.C.E.: Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekkah, Jacob, Leah and Rachel: the first Jews
c. 1750-1400 B.C.E.: First Exile -- Slavery in Egypt
c. 1400-1250 BCE : Exodus-- Heading Home! Moses receives the Torah at Sinai
c. 1250-1030: Conquest of Canaan; Joshua leads, followed by the Judges.
c. 1030-930: Israel Ruled by Samuel the Prophet, and the Kings: Saul, David, and Solomon, who builds the First Temple
c. 925: Division of the United Kingdom, into North (Israel) and South (Judea)
721: The northern kingdom falls to Assyria: Tribes of Israel Lost
586: First Temple Destroyed: many exiled to Babylonia
538: Cyrus allows Jews to return to Israel to rebuild Temple, many stay in Babylonia
c. 332: Alexander the Great establishes Greek Rule throughout the Near East
c. 200: Hebrew Bible Canonized.
168-165: Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus, (the story of Hanukkah)
63: Roman Rule begins
19: Herod renovates the Second Temple
29: Romans crucify Jesus in Jerusalem
70: Romans destroy Jerusalem, burning the Temple. Yohanan ben Zakkai establishes a “yeshiva” at Yavneh
73: Masada Falls.
132-135: Second revolt against Rome, led by Simon Bar Kochba: The Emperor Hadrian imposes the name “Palestine” to strip the Judeans of their identity as “Israel”
c. 500: Babylonian Talmud compiled.
570-635: Mohammed founds Islam
638: Arabs conquer Jerusalem: Build Mosque of Omar/Dome of the Rock
1096-1099: First Crusade
1492: The Inquisition: Spain expels the Jews
1517: Ottoman Empire conquers Palestine
1648: Khmelnitski Revolt in the Ukraine: Cossacks massacre the Jews
1791: Emancipation: After the French Revolution, Jews declared full citizens
1840: Damascus Blood Libel—anti-Semitism in Syria outrages the Western World
1843: First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alkalai and Rabbi Kalischer.
1860: Mishkenot Sha’aninim becomes Jerusalem’s first Jewish settlement outside the Old City.
1862: Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem
1870’s: Chovevei Tziyon, the Loves of Zion, forms in Russia.
1878: Naphtali Herz Imber writes what becomes HaTikvah, the Hope, the Jewish national anthem
The Pioneers: Founding the Jewish State (1881-1948)
1881: New wave of violent Pogroms in Russia
1882: BILU begins the pioneering movement to settle the Land of Israel
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda arrives in Palestine.
Leon Pinsker writes Auto-Emancipation
1883-1903: First Aliyah, also known as Agricultural Aliyah, arrives largely from Eastern Europe
1890: Nathan Birnbaum coins the term Sionismus - Zionism.
1891: Ahad Ha’am makes his first trip to Palestine
1894: Dreyfus Affair, French Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus framed
1896: Theodor Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, the Jewish State
1897: First Zionist Congress held at Basel
1901: Fifth Zionist Congress establishes the Jewish National Fund
1902: Herzl publishes his utopian novel Altneuland
Mizrachi, the Religious Zionist organization founded
1903: Kishinev Pogrom erupts, Hayyim Nahman Bialik writes The City of Slaughter
Sixth Zionist Congress debates the “Uganda” proposal: the Land of Israel affirmed as
Essential to Zionism.
1904-1914: Second Aliyah, mainly from Russian Empire. Start of Kibbutz movement
1904: A.D. Gordon and HaRav Abraham Isaac Kook each arrive in Palestine
1906: Solomon Schechter writes Zionism: A Statement
1909: Tel Aviv (first called Ahuzat Bayit) founded, north of Jaffa;
Young Judaea founded in the the US
The poetess Rachel arrives in Palestine.
1910: First Kibbutz - Degania - founded
1912: Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America
1914-1918: World War I
1914: Louis Brandeis becomes President of the Provisional Executive Committee for Zionist Affairs
1917: Lord Balfour promises to establish a Jewish National Home
1919-1923: Third Aliyah, pioneers, chalutzim, from Eastern Europe.
1920: Joseph Trumpeldor killed in battle at Tel Hai
Following Arab riots, Ze’ev Jabotinsky and others organize Haganah, Jewish Self
Chaim Weizmann becomes president of the Zionist Organization
Histadrut, the General Federation of Hebrew Workers in the Land of Israel, established
Hebrew becomes the official language of Jewish Palestine
1921: British partition of Jordan and Palestine, British Mandate begins
Haj Amin El Husseini appointed Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.
Yosef Hayim Brenner killed in Arab riots in Jaffa
1924-1928: Fourth Aliyah causes rapid expansion and urbanisation.
1925: Founding of Hebrew University Jabotinsky founds the Union of Zionists-Revisionists
1929: Arab riots. Ancient Jewish Settlement of Hebron destroyed.
1929-1939: Fifth Aliyah. Huge wave of Jews fleeing Nazi-controlled Europe.
1931: Jabotinsky leaves Haganah and forms Irgun or Etzel - The Irgun Tzvai Leumi
1934: Sieff Institute - today the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot - founded
1934: Aliyah Bet -- smuggling in Jews from Holocaust-stricken countries -- begins
1935: David Ben-Gurion becomes chairman of the Jewish Agency
1937: The Reform Movement starts becoming Zionist with the Columbus Platform
The Peel Commissin proposes a Partition of Palestine
1939: Grand Mufti leads Arab Revolt;
British issue White Paper limiting Jewish immigration into Palestine.
1940: Yair Stern breaks off from the Irgun and forms Lehi (Lochami Heruth Yisrael -
Freedom fighters of Israel).
1941: Elite fighting force of the Haganah, the “Palmach”, established
1942: Biltmore Program: American Jewry endorses Zionism
Haim Hazaz writes The Sermon
1939-1945: World War II and the Holocaust
1947: The dramatic struggle over the ship filled with Holocaust refugees: The Exodus
Natan Alterman writes Magash HaKesef, The Silver Platter
November 29, 1947: UN partitions Palestine. Arab guerillas reject the compromise and attack
The Builders: Actualizing and Modernizing The Zionist Blueprints (1848-2000)
May 15, 1948: State of Israel proclaimed, 7 Arab armies attack, War of Independence
Ben-Gurion orders the sinking of the Altalena, Menachem Begin avoids Civil War
By end of year, Israel has 716, 000 Jews and 156,000 non-Jews,
Ben-Zion Meir Chai Uziel and Isaac HaLevi Herzog write the Prayer for the State of Israel
1949: First Elections held in Israel; David Ben-Gurion elected Prime Minister.
The Government of Israel decrees Jerusalem to be its capital.
United Nations formally recognizes the State of Israel.
239,954 immigrants arrive as the Aliyah from Arab and Muslim lands starts surging --
including Operation Magic Carpet from Yemen
1950: Israeli Knesset passes the Law of Return, guaranteeing asylum for Jews from across the world
1951: first Jerusalem Program adopted; Germany offers Israel controversial war reparations
1956: Suez Campaign, Israel forced to withdraw after capturing the Sinai
Joseph Soloveitchik delivers his classic sermon, Listen! My Beloved Knocks
1957: Chalutziut, pioneering continues: Hula swamp drained; Dimona nuclear reactor built
1958: Leon Uris publishes Exodus
Mashav works with developing countries, fulfilling Herzl’s vision Golda Meir soon called “the Mother of Africa”
1959: Arthur Hertzberg publishes his Zionist anthology, The Zionist Idea
1960: Nazi Officer Adolf Eichmann is captured and brought to Israel to stand trial.
1964: National Water Carrier inaugurated; Beatles banned to preserve Zionism’s culture purity
1965: Teddy Kollek becomes mayor of Jerusalem; Israel Museum established
1966: Elie Wiesel’s The Jews of Silence focuses the public of Soviet Jewry
Albert Memmi writes The Liberation of the Jews
S.Y. Agnon shares the Nobel Prize for Literature
1967: Six Day War, Israel conquers the West Bank, Gaza, Golan Heights, the Sinai, and reunites “Jerusalem of Gold,” as Naomi Shemer sings about it
1969: Golda Meir elected as Israel’s first Female Prime Minister.
1971: Black Panthers formed in Jerusalem to protest discrimination against Mizrahim
1973: Yom Kippur War, Surprise Attack.
1974: Gush Emunim founded
1975: UN declares Zionism is racism in resolution.
1976: Operation Entebbe rescues Israeli hostages from Uganda; Yoni Netanyahu killed.
May, 1977: Menachem Begin wins election, the right-wing gains power for the first time.
November, 1977: Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem
1977: Hillel Halkin’s Letters to an American Jewish Friend challenges American Jewry
1978-1979: Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel negotiated and signed.
1978: Peace Now Founded
1980: New Israeli Shekel becomes the currency of Israel.
1981: Operation Opera: Israel destroys Iraq’s nuclear reactor.
1982: First Lebanon War
evacuated to Israel from refugee camps in Sudan.
1985: Free Trade Agreement with US
1986: Anatoly Scharansky freed from the Gulag; makes Aliyah and becomes Natan Sharansky
1987-89: The first Palestinian uprising - or Intifada
1987: Massive Russian Aliyah of 1.2 million begins surging
1991: Gulf war. Scud missiles fired at Israel from Iraq.
Operation Solomon: An airlift began which would transport some fourteen thousand
1993: Israel and the Palestinians sign the Oslo Accords in Washington DC.
1994: Israel signs peace treaty with Jordan
Asa Kasher and others write the IDF Code of Ethics
1995: Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated
Torchbearers: Reassessing, Redirecting, Reinvigorating in The Twenty-First Century (2000 until today)
2000: Bill Clinton hosts Ehud Barak and Yasir Arafat at Camp David: Arafat never responds to Barak’s peace plan
Israel withdraws the last of its forces from Southern Lebanon
2000: Arafat leads the Palestinians back to Terror in the “Second Intifada.”
2004: Jerusalem Program updated
2005: Israel unilaterally withdraws from Gaza; Hamas soon controls Gaza
2006: Prime Minister Ariel Sharon suffers a severe stroke and falls into a coma. Replaced by Ehud Olmert.
Second Lebanon War
2008-2009: Operation Cast Lead - First Gaza War
2010: The Shas Party with Ovadia Yosef’s approval joins the World Zionist Organization
2011: Israeli Social Justice protests in Tel Aviv over affordable housing.
2012: Operation Pillar of Defense - Second Gaza War
2014: Operation Defensive Edge - Second Gaza War
2015: Benjamin Netanyahu wins fourth term in Government
President Reuven Rivlin presents his vision of the Four Tribes of Israel
Erez Biton first Mizrahi Poet to win the Israel Prize
2016: Israeli Private Equity Investment Peaks at a record $3.5 billion for Start-Up Nation
2017: United States formally recognises Jerusalem as Israel’s capital city.